The City of Ligao is geographically located between 13 to 14 latitude and 123 to 124 longitude and sitting strategically in the center of the 3rd District of the Province of Albay, in the Philippines, approximately 500 kms South of Manila. It is a 4th class Component City of the Province with a land area of approximately 24,640 hectares, making it the 2nd largest city in the province in terms of land area. Per 2007 Census, the city's latest recorded population, at an average annual growth rate of 1.67 %, is at 101, 179 (or a total of 20,236 household), 28.04% (28, 373) of which living in the urban central. The city's gross population density stands at 410 persons per square kilometer.
Ligao City consists of 55 barangays (villages) spread into 18 upland (rural), 11 urban, 23 lowland and 3 coastal (rural) barangays.
The City's municipal water is approximately 126 square kilometer in expense with a coastline length of approximately eight point four (8.4) kilometers.
Most of the city's terrain is undulating to rolling, mainly in its middle portion. This area is bounded by coastal plains and rolling to very steep hills. Higher terrains, characterized by rolling to very steep slopes (18-50%) are found in barnagays within forestlands. It has an average elevation of 1,350 feet above sea level.
Typical to other Local Government Units of Albay and the rest of the western and southern parts of the Bicol Region, the City of Ligao does not have pronounced dry and wet seasons. The prevailing tyes of climate in Ligao are the second, third, and fourth types. The second type is characterized by pronounced maximum rainfall (November- January) and no dry season; the third has no pronounced seasons but is relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year; while the fourth type is where rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. Generally, the climate is described as tropical, with the trend toward uniformity of temperature, humidity, evaporation and solar incidence with minimal fluctuation.
Vegetative cover of the city's land area includes public forest and national parks, pastures and grasslands and agricultural croplands. The soils are volcanic in origin and these are generally suited for a wide range of agricultural crops. The soils of Ligao are classified into two different categories: the soils of the plains and valleys and the soils of the uplands, hills, and mountains. Other land resources are its non-metallic minerals such as phosphate rocks, guano, sand and gravel and white clay.
The City of Ligao's economy is anchored on 80% agriculture. About 19, 516 hectares or 79.21 percent of the total land area of the City is devoted to agicultural crop production. The City's prime commodity is copra and the most widely planted perennial crop occupying 59.85 percent or 11,681 hectares of total agricultural croplands is coconut. Corn and rice are next most extensively planted crops. Other significant crops planted include banana, root crops, vegetables, and industrial crops.